HIV AIDS-Sign, Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment



HIV Virus/Retro Virus

HIV Virus

What is AIDS?

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), potentially life-threatening and a chronic condition that is usually caused by HIV (Human immunodeficiency virus). HIV interferes with our body ability to fight against infection and diseases by damaging our immune system.

HIV is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) that is usually transmitted through unsafe sexual intercourse. It is also supposed to be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth or through breastfeeding. Usually, it is transmitted through the contact of blood infected with HIV.

HIV/AIDS is an incurable disease that does not have any cure. once you suffer from HIV/AIDS it will remain in your body for a lifetime. However, a medicine called Antiretroviral therapy or ART can slow down the progression of the disease. This drug has dramatically decrease death in many nations.

Without HIV medicine or drugs, people with AIDS typically cannot survive more than 3 years.


 Symptoms of HIV/AIDS

HIV and AIDS symptoms vary according to the phase of infection.

Acute HIV (Primary Infection)/ Incubation Period

At the primary stage of HIV patients may suffer from the flu-like illness within 2 to 4 weeks after the infection of the virus. This may last for few weeks and is often called the incubation period.

Signs and symptoms include:

  1. Diarrhoea
  2. Rashes in the skin
  3. Fever
  4. Weight loss
  5. Cough
  6. Swollen lymph gland mainly in the neck
  7. Sore throat
  8. Extreme headache
  9. Weakness


Chronic HIV Stage

Many of the people do not show any signs and symptoms during this period. However, HIV is still present in the white blood cell and body.

The chronic stage can last for many years


HIV Infection

The HIV virus known as retrovirus continues to multiply and start to destroy the white blood cells.

The symptoms include:

  • Diarrhoea
  • Thrush (Oral yeast Infection)
  • Fever
  • Heavyweight loss
  • Pneumonia
  • Fatigue
  • Swollen lymph gland mainly in the neck
  • Cough



When HIV is not treated in time then in 5 to 10 years HIV turns into AIDS.

AIDS usually occur when HIV severely destroy our Immune system. People with AIDS usually suffer from cancer and other diseases

Symptoms include:

  • Extreme weight loss
  • Weakness in the body
  • Red rashes are seen in the skin
  • Cough
  • Swollen lymph gland mainly in the neck
  • Fatigue
  • Chronic diarrhoea
  • High and recurring fever
  • Chills and sweats


How does HIV Spread/Transfer??

HIV is caused by the retrovirus known as HIV virus and spread by unsafe sexual contact, use of infected blood and from mother to child during pregnancy, childbirth and during breastfeeding.

  1. Through the unsafe sexual intercourse


Usually, HIV transfer from an infected person to a healthy person through unsafe sex (without the use of condoms). The virus usually enters into the healthy person through the mouth sores or sores in the anus and vagina.


  1. Through the infected needles and syringes

The use of infected needles and syringes during the operations and during drug use causes the infection of HIV.


       3. During pregnancy

An infected mother may pass the HIV virus to their babies. Although there is a lower chance of transmission through the women who use anti-HIV drugs.


  1. Through breastfeeding

There is a higher chance of the spread of the HIV virus during the breastfeeding period. So, infected mothers are highly recommended to use alternative sources of milk rather than breastfeeding.


  1. Infected blood transfusion

The HIV virus is transmitted from an infected person to a healthy person through contaminated blood. So, before using the blood for transfusion test it properly.


  1. Organ transplantation


In some cases, the virus may be transmitted during organ transplantation.



HIV doesn’t Spread through the??

  • Hugging
  • Kissing
  • Ordinary contact
  • Dancing
  • Sharing kitchen
  • Sleeping together
  • Shaking hands etc.


Infections Very Common To HIV AIDS


TB is one of the most common infections associated with HIV. It causes the death of many people who are suffering from AIDS.


It is the most common and opportunistic infection associated with HIV. It causes a white coating on the mouth, tongue, vagina and other places.


It is the most common type of cancer of WBCs (White Blood Cells). Symptoms include painless swelling of lymph, neck, groin and armpit.


It is caused by the Toxoplasma gondii the virus primarily spread by cats. Toxoplasmosis can cause heart disease and eventually death of a person


Prevention of HIV/AIDS

  1. Use a condom every time when you are having sex
  2. Don’t make multiple sex partner
  3. Use of clean and sterilized needles and syringes
  4. Tell your sexual partner if you have HIV
  5. If you are suffering from HIV then immediately start Antiretroviral Therapy
  6. If you are pregnant then consult the medical care immediately
  7. Consider preexposure prophylaxis’









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